Lost in all the technical jargon? Find definitions for common email and technical terms and learn more with our related resources.


The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography And Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act is a regulation enacted by the United States in 2003 to limit a company’s ability to send unwanted or spam emails to customers. While it’s never recommended to send spam to recipients, CAN-SPAM makes it illegal.


The California Consumers Privacy Act (CCPA) is a 2018 California regulation that focuses on protecting consumer data rights for California residents. These rights include the right to know about the personal information businesses are collecting, the right to obtain the data collected, and the right to delete the information provided (with some exceptions).

CDP (Customer Data Platform)

A CDP (Customer Data Platform) is a software tool used to manage data collected from customer interactions with web apps or emails.


A chatbot is a software tool that provides instant automated responses to users’ messages. These are embedded in web pages and powered by a software called conversational AI. Depending on how advanced the software is, these bots mimic a human being and triage customers’ needs. After completing the first few customers’ requests, the chatbot either directs the users to the next steps or connects them to a human representative. They’re a staple of reliable user experience and user interface design. Brands can also set up an email chatbot to respond to customers’ emails, automating responses and simplifying interactions.

Click-through rate (CTR)

A click-through rate (CTR) is the proportion at which recipients follow a call-to-action (CTA) and visit the web page (or landing page). It’s a great indicator of whether a CTA works or if subscribers find the content engaging. When expressed in a formula, the CTR factors in the total number of clicks divided by the total number of emails sent and multiplied by 100. Here’s how:

Client relationship management

Client Relationship Management (CRM) is the process of determining when, where, and how to interact with clients to evaluate and manage client interactions. Brands use CRM tools – software that automate customer relationships – to set up specific touchpoints in the customer journey or events that trigger automated emails. For instance, if a new subscriber browses a website but leaves without taking any actions, the CRM registers this as a touchpoint and sends an automated email to follow up.

Conversion rate

Conversion rate is a marketing metric that assesses the number of users who made a purchase after opening an email versus the total number of emails sent out. The conversion rate formula is the number of recipients who followed a call-to-action (CTA) divided by the number of emails delivered expressed in percentage: